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China has been known by many names throughout history, but the most traditional name China used to refer to itself is – ‘Zhonggou’ meaning the Middle Kingdom or the Central Kingdom. The name implies the belief that, from a cultural and historical point of view, China is the ‘centre’ of the world. China was divided into several independent states thousands of years ago but united by an emperor. As China became more united, the middle kingdom referred to the actual middleness of these states.  With time the term is used for the entire country as a whole rather than a small area where the emperor used to live.

Today, China is retaking this historical position and is a significant player in the international order. It is pushing and asserting its leadership on this historical ground. To understand the nature and mindset of contemporary China, we need to look back into her history full of culture and prosperity, and the subsequent humiliation by Western powers.


Ancient China was well ahead of its time, and this is an understatement. The Chinese had already built powerful bellows around 2500 years ago when the Western people did not even understand the processes involved in melting scrap metal, which could lift the temperature of furnaces high enough to allow multi-ton iron projects to be started. During the reign of the Tang Dynasty, gunpowder was invented in 850 AD; it then spread across the rest of Eurasia, after which it soon came into contact with the Europeans and the Middle East. Gunpowder’s invention in China is still heralded as one of the Four Greatest Inventions of all time since this accidental invention has now become the staple means of security for nations worldwide. The other three of the four greatest inventions are the compass (206 BC), paper making (105 AD), and movable type printing (960 AD). Another invention that has made humanity’s survival more organized was the invention of the mechanical clock during the reign of the Song Dynasty which, albeit famous, did not go down history as renowned as the other four prominent Chinese Dynasties: Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han.

Ancient China had a system of independent states for over five hundred years, between around 770 and 221 BC. After a relatively peaceful and philosophical Spring and Autumn period, several states were at war to gain control over China. The warring states period ended with Qin’s conquest, the emperor from which the name China arrives. Qin emerged victorious and was able to unify all other states under one china, so this conquest is described as the process of unification. Since then several dynasties ruled China, remaining unified as an empire.

The idea of the Mandate of Heaven was used by Han emperors to create a powerful, centralized monarchy. The Chinese during the era of the Han dynasty had also introduced the concept of civil service or at least a prototype of the exams which would judge applicants based on their command over history, literature, and philosophy. They also built the silk road to protect their Empire from nomads of inner Asia, whom they considered as barbarians or uncivilized.

Mongol Empire invaded China in 1279 but was defeated by the Mings, who were again able to unify China. During their period China embarked on maritime expeditions to India, Indonesia, Arabia, and Africa. Trade with the Europeans was done in exchange for silver.

The succeeding dynasty and the last dynasty was the Qing Dynasty which was founded in 1644. They expanded the Chinese Empire by conquering Xinjiang, Tibet, Taiwan, and Mongolia. But this was the time when western countries were also strengthening.

However, this was the period when western imperialism was expanding and gaining control. Qing Dynasty clashed with western powers which ultimately led to its downfall and also the end of the dynasty rule in China.


The Qing Dynasty came into power in the 17th century. Britain was fascinated with Chinese tea and other products and decided to expand trade ties with China to purchase these products. The Chinese, however, refused the bid, claiming that their Empire owns everything and that there is no need to import the products of the outside barbarians in return for their goods. However, via the city of Canton (Guangzhou), a small amount of trade with foreign countries was still carried out, and the Canton system acted as a way of managing and regulating trade with the West. Britain was dissatisfied with the scheme and wanted the restricted exchange to scale up. Opium from India was one thing that the British decided to offer, and China could not refuse it. China soon became addicted. The East India Company was exclusively responsible for the trade of opium. The Qing emperor soon realized the serious consequences, and he decided to send Commissioner Lin Zeu to Canton to stop the trade of opium. This inevitably led to a conflict known as the First Opium War and the beginning of the century of humiliation between Britain and China.

With its modern ships and technology, Britain was able to defeat China. The defeat of the Qing Dynasty came as a massive blow. The Nanking Treaty was concluded by both countries in the aftermath of the war, under which Hong Kong acceded to Britain. By providing additional privileges to extend its trade and settlement ports in China, the treaty strongly favored Britain. China was unhappy with the unequal arrangements, and the Second Opium War (1956-1960) between the two nations soon broke out, but more Western powers, including France, Russia, and the USA, supported Britain this time. Trade rights were also sought from China by the other forces involved.

Japan also fought with the Qing Dynasty in 1894 over the dominance of Korea. China was once again defeated because Japan invaded and seized control of Taiwan. Internally, the people of China, were not satisfied with the status quo and anti-foreign feelings contributed to a youth uprising, known as the Boxer rebellion. the rebellion was also suppressed by the armies of many foreign countries. All these factors led to the Qing dynasty’s eventual collapse in 1911. This ended the long history of the rule of the dynasty in China.

The Republic of China was founded after the fall of the Qing Dynasty under the leadership of the Nationalist People’s Party, also known as the Kuomintang(KMT), led by Chang Kai Shek. China was forced into World War II soon after its establishment and lost the Shantung Peninsula to Japan. Young people were upset, and communist ideologies were gaining prominence. Among those attracted was Mao Zedong, who later led the KMT against the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The two parties claimed to be the real Chinese government, which kicked off a civil war in China.

Fast forward to the Sino Japanese War II when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1933, both the parties fought together against Japan. Also were supported by the Allied Powers who condemned this action of Japan. Consequently, Japan invaded Pearl Harbour in 1941 and ultimately the USA retaliated by dropping atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the Second World War. But the civil war in China continued. CCP emerged victoriously and the Nationalists had to retreat to Taiwan. And the Republic of China- mainland China became the People’s Republic of China, China that we know today.


In 1949, Mao Zedong founded the People’s Republic of China. Mao believed that only if it discarded its past could China be free and powerful. He blamed its weakness on Chinese society and tried to introduce a new spirit of Chinese nationalism with it. Under Mao, Chinese policies had a vision and purpose to expand influence by improving the domestic economy and military so that it could be stronger to strike back against the great powers that have victimized China in the past century. The drastic measures resulted in anarchy but kept  China was independent and unified as well.

The CPC still respected Mao after he died, but the majority of the party did not consider his choices to be right. While they understood that a man like Mao needed to unite China under the rule of one government, they were unable to turn China into a world power. His successor, Deng Xiaoping, then brought extreme changes by opening up the Chinese economy, which changed China drastically. . Chinese economy began to grow at double-digit rates. . He advocated the ‘hiding and binding’ strategy, which implies that China should maintain a low-key role and continue to expand its development. This approach helped China to develop when big powers, including the United States, developed trade ties with China.

When President Xi Jinping came into power, things took a turn. He is known for his assertion and authority, unlike the previous strategy of hiding and biding. He vowed to restore China, to its ancient prominence and glory, which is expressed in his actions.

China became a central player in the international arena under Xi Jinping. With national pride, Xi seeks to set legitimacy. Under Xi, China is engaged in aggressive actions in the seas of South and East China, reversing the U.S. security alliance in the Asia Pacific, and has launched the Belt and Silk Road Project to be the core of the world as a way to return its ancient dominance.  The rise which was peaceful two decades ago is now aggressive, and the world is trying to confront this new global power.    By supporting the Chinese dream, Xi has made it clear that China will be stronger and prosperous in the future, and he will make this happen in his way!


History teaches us a lot and should not be ignored. Ancient China was the oldest civilization in the world, and perhaps the most advanced. The main inventions were made long before they reached the west, but they were used by the west to conquer the east and the rest of the world. It can be inferred that China was incapacitated by the West like other colonies, but China has not forgotten its ancient origins, unlike others. There seems to be no reason for Chinese geopolitical aggression today when the world has changed and is in a different setting. What appears, though, is that history repeats itself, and it all comes down to the nature of man and the nature of his thought. Today the world is cultivating anti-China sentiments, but one thing looks certain, how much slower the process gets, China will continue on its path of gaining its ancient supremacy.


Revisiting the French devised Code de l’indigénat and it’s aftermath


Is withdrawal of troops an ongoing sudden nationalist trend or a hasty measure for the appeasement of the domestic populace? As Western powers prepare to leave their grounds in Asian and African regions, whom will these changes benefit? Quite a few questions hover around as the globe has begun to slowly fuel it’s engines either to start off or preparing to start off in the post-pandemic situation, as the current international events shape the upcoming global timeline.

Previously the occupational therapy that the colonial powers used to provide to the colonies were labeled as “civilizing the uncivilized ” or “making them westernized” and if not that exactly, then something almost similar. As the United States prepare to leave Afghani ground by September 11 of this year completely, marking  the 20th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. French President has been vocal about reducing the number of troops from the Military Operation Barkhane which operated in Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad and Niger.

President Macron has expressed to be committed in the Sahel region but he voiced that a “profound transformation” is on it’s way and the military operations won’t be the same anymore. With this recent move, we try to trace back to a period of time in African history to revisit the regime de I’indigenat of French colonization in Africa.

The French ruled Algeria as the colonial power for nearly 135 years. This code of nativity (Code de l’indigénat) has been an integral part of their colonial policy from the beginning. They went on to impose similar laws in the other parts of Africa as they increased their occupied territory across the continent. The French invasion ceased the Algerian slave trade and piracy but it instead summoned aggression against the resistance towards colonization resulting in bloodshed and inviting more.

The French devised a way where it relied upon its subjects to maintain their colonialism in the lands of their subjects. The policy was demographically divided into three categories which were called communes. The communes with a significant amount of French people elected their administrative bodies and were the self governing parts of the colons (colonies). The native Muslim communes elected some but had a grand chieftain who was selected to head the elected council. The communes with more uninhabitable or uninhabited places were under the military’s jurisdiction. This began after the implementation of the Royal decree of 1845 in Algeria.

But as a de facto ruler tightens it’s grip and becomes a colonial power, a small group of natives, those who exercise certain influence over the settlers come in handy for the occupiers. The small group of French speaking indigenous influential elites formed during this time mainly consisting of the Berbers, mostly Kabyles. As a consequence the French government favoured the Kabyles. Almost about 80% of the indigenous schools were constructed for the Kabyles. Similarly the French government favoured them in the local positions and vice versa.

The Code of the Indigénat categorized the citizenship of it’s population and subjects into two: the French citizens (with metropolitan descent) and French subjects, namely black Africans, Malagasy, Algerians, West Indians, Melanesians, etc. The code of the Senatus Consulte deprived them of most of their freedom and political rights; among the people, they only retain their own religious or customary descent identity.

A method of promotion was laid for the assimilation of the African people or the “civilizing” people. In July 14th 1865, the king Napoleon III in the first clause of the Senatus Consulte of full citizenship allowance request made it clear that though a Muslim or a Jew indigenous is French, even after that if he or she wants to enjoy the rights of a French citizen he or she will have to admit it, to be subjected to the political and civil laws of France. It established specific penalties for the indigenous and organised lawful dispossession of their own lands. But this wasn’t where it ended, as these establishments went through further improvements (1874, 1876, 1877, and 1881) as more offenses went on getting specified and enlisted since then. Since 1860s several changes were made in the upcoming years. The laws on exercising of public movement and assembly turned more restrictive in nature for the indigenous people. Punishment for the natives included, fines or penalty of a demotion other than the prevailing sequestration.

The attempt towards naturalization that the French government tried to carry out was very depressing. In 1865 the first clause of the Senatus Consulte highlighted the requirement of naturalization that was expected to happen for a healthy assimilation to take place. This initiative didn’t turn out well as in a country of millions they received less than 200 naturalization requests from the Muslims and nearly 160 requests from the Jews and other groups. This reaction wasn’t satisfactory at all for the French government back then.

The French administered the whole of Mediterranean region of Algeria as an integral part and departement of the nation since 1848 till the independence. When the French entered, only 1.5 million Algerians lived and when they gained independence it was more than seven times of it.

Between 1825-1847, fifty thousand French people emigrated to Algeria. These settlers benefitted from the French government’s confiscation of communal lands from the tribal peoples and the application of modern agricultural techniques that increased the amount of arable land. Many Europeans settled in Oran and Algiers, and by the early 20th century they formed a majority of the population in both cities.

The improvements of the code eventually went on widening the difference between the thought processes invested, separately for the indigenous and the French settlers from Europe. The true harsh identity of the code of the nativity was becoming visible as in 1881 some specific offenses were codified, which were to be distinguished from the crimes or acts committed in violation of the French law.

Since 1887, different powers started implementing a similar kind of native code in their respective colonies. The implementation of the native Algerian code acted as an inspiration behind the implementation of something similar or more strict for several other colonies like New Caledonia.

During the late 19th and the early 20th century; the European share was almost a fifth of the population. The French government aimed at making Algeria an assimilated part of France, and this included substantial educational investments especially after 1900. The indigenous cultural and religious resistance heavily opposed this tendency but in contrast to the other colonies of Central Asia and caucuses, kept it’s individual skills and human capital intensive agriculture alive.

Gradually, dissatisfaction among the Muslim population, which lacked political and economical status in the colonial system gave rise to demands for greater political autonomy and eventually independence from France.

In the code’s basic understanding it used to treat natives with forceful labour laws and banned the free movement of an individual and etc. The reason explaining the theory of colonialism in colonial literature as an objective of the European settlers in any part of the world has been, an attempt to civilize the inhabitants of the colonies. Similarly the French government also attempted, but the primary understanding of the code was perceived incorrectly as it should have helped the growth of institutionalism within the natives, instead it helped the settlers and the grounds for more injustice and inequality brewed.

Indo Pacific Policy

Indo-pacific is a biographic locale of earth oceans interconnecting two water bodies i.e,
the Indian Ocean, the western and focal pacific sea, and the landmasses that encompass them. since just about twenty years the expression “Indo-Pacific” has broadly
been utilized in international affairs, anyway, it was first utilized by German geopolitician
Karl Ernst Haushofer during the 1920s in his scholarly work called !Indopazifischen
Raum”. Afterward, Gurpreet s. Khurana who was a marine specialist and leader head of
the New Delhi National Marine Foundation authored it as, “Indo-Pacific procedure,” 10
years back unexpectedly. Further, it was picked by Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzō Abe,
as in his discourse in the Indian parliament in august 2007 he discussed the intermingling of Indian and pacific seas. The locale holds around half of the universe’s populace
and is plentiful in mineral and marine assets. In any case, the most significant it is that
the Indian ocean trade has been a key factor throughout the history for trade exchange
and energy supply of the rising economies like India, China, and Japan.
Almost 10 years prior, in 2007 Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzō Abe believed that in coming years to counter china’s developing impact in military and monetary force, Asia’s
and different majority rules systems need to meet up to limit the controlling impact of
china in south china and east china ocean. He started a gathering as a discourse in
2007, known as Quadrilateral Security Dialog (QUAD) which is a casual key discussion
and multilateral gathering between United States, Japan, Australia, and India that is
kept up by semi-common culminations, data trade, and military drills between part nations. The most significant part of the quadrilateral dialogue is maritime security and
cooperation, followed by economic and technology cooperation, climate change, and
covid-19 related issues.
The First Malabar maritime exercise was done by every one of the four-part nations and
Singapore in help to the current multilateral gathering. Be that as it may, the principal
pattern of the Quad halted to exist following the withdrawal of Australia in February

  1. The inspected intention behind this disposal was Australia’s extraordinary relations with china. Besides to be exact it tends to be said that in 2007 Australia was profoundly reliant on china market for its fare of coal. China, at that point, challenged this
    quadrilateral gathering, and subsequently to keep up the connection Australia pulled
    back. All the more such explanations behind the suspension were china’s friendly prime
    minister Yasuo Fukuda supplanted Shinzō Abe and furthermore India’s leader Manmohan Singh’s visit to China where he discussed the need for India-china relations. Nevertheless, over the span of the 2017 ASEAN Summit held in Manila, all part nations of
    QUAD rejoined to resuscitate the quadrilateral partnership. US, Japan, Australia, and
    India held a vital gathering in manila, witnessed china and its developing impact and
    animosity in South East Asia.
    QUAD- The Vision
    The QUAD, which was referred to as the quadrilateral safety dialogue, is now referred to
    as the quadrilateral framework to the point it has gone past a slim safety dialogue. We
    can witness appellation of the First QUAD summit 2021 was- “first leaders summit of
    the quadrilateral framework# where the leaders remarked on securing free and open access to indo-pacific, prioritizing the supply of vaccines considering the pandemic and
    resilient supply and production chains.
    For very nearly 16 years, the QUAD has neglected to go past being a discussing work.
    Its guarantees didn’t convert right into it on the ground. However, this time four clear
    and explicit s areas of cooperation have been identified. The first is Maritime security
    and cooperation, impressive progress was made around here during Trump Administration as he started alluding to the Asia Pacific as ‘Indo-Pacific.’ In 2020, every one of the
    four nations partook in the Malabar exercise. Strangely this year, QUAD has extended
    its collaboration by including the QUAD and non-QUAD members. Reports show that
    France and the UAE will hold hands with the QUAD for maritime exercise. The second
    area of collaboration will be on covid- 19 related issues. From the start of this pandemic, India#s approach has been worldwide. From safeguarding unfamiliar ex-pats caught
    in far-off nations to nursing the world through its vaccine diplomacy, WHO and IMF
    lauded India for contributing enormously in the battle against Coronavirus. Further,
    QUAD is hoping to dispatch a far-reaching ‘vaccine program’ where vaccines will be
    created in the US, produced in India, Financed by Japan, and upheld by Australia. The
    pooling of individual limits and strength by the QUAD nations will assist worldwide vaccine delivery. It will help meet the demand-supply gap, zeroing in on the Indo-Pacific
    district particularly with the expertise of Australia & Japan for logistics in the Indo-Pacific. The Third area of cooperation is climate change. It has been acquiring energy in Joe
    Biden’s homegrown and international strategy plan in the wake of rejoining Paris environment understanding. This region will attempt to corner china into conveying more,
    and working gatherings for environmental change are relied upon to be declared soon.
    The Fourth area is economic and technological cooperation which will focus on uplifting
    the supply chain of almost all the countries as It indirectly recognizes China as an economic and technological threat. China which produces 60% of the world’s rare earth
    will see tough competition, as the QUAD joins hands to build a rare earth procurement
    chain and counter chinas dominance, the Quad will also look dent china#s technological influence. France conducts ‘La Perouse’ Naval Exercise with QUAD members in Bay
    of Bengal, 5-7 April 2021. Reports of France driving the QUAD naval forces during the
    activity have come concede hypotheses of a QUAD-Plus’ structure and rising interest
    from extra-local players.
    It’s about 3.5 million square kilometers of waters broken exclusively by a couple of reefs
    shoals and rough islands. South china’s
    ocean is a marginal sea, which is important
    for the pacific sea. It is encircled by littoral
    states-china, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, and Taiwan.
    Around 33% of the world’s global exchange goes through its water. It is vital as the
    ‘strait of Malacca’ associates the south china ocean with the Indian Ocean while the
    Formosa waterway interfaces the south china ocean with the east china ocean.
    Economies of southeast Asian nations intensely rely upon ports and free development
    of labor and products through exchange paths in the south China ocean. 33% of the
    world’s transportation goes through it, continuing $3 trillion in exchange every year.
    South china’s ocean has enormous stores of oil and flammable gas, fisheries, ocean
    items, and different minerals. Every one of the littoral nations of this ocean needs to investigate these reserves for economic development.
    “In the south china sea and underneath the south china sea, of course,
    there’s a lot of raw materials. There are very rich fishing grounds, so there
    are some economic concerns in the south china sea as well”
    -Michael W. Michalak
    Quad held its first gathering in Manila in 2007, seven months following the just initiated
    assembling of four majority rules systems, Foreign Minister Stephen Smith proclaimed
    Australia’s withdrawal from the Quad during a press readiness with his Chinese accomplice Yang Jiechi, without talking with India, Japan, or the US. The purpose for the
    withdrawal could be viewed as closer relations with China. In late 2007, China turned
    into Australia’s biggest trading partner, and in the accompanying 2 years, in 2009 china
    turned into Australia’s biggest export market. By 2017-18, China was by a wide margin
    the biggest trading partner of Australia, contributing nearly $194.6 billion worth of imports and fares (generally of coal and mining). This made a specific sort of frightening
    monetary reliance on china as the consolidated worth of exchange with the US and
    Japan was not exactly that of China.
    The Quad once again came in news leaders of all four members met on the sidelines of the East Asia summit in Manila on November 11, 2017. Following 13
    years, Australia rejoins the trilateral grouping of India, Japan, and the US. In
    2020, Malabar maritime exercise saw the participation of Australia alongside the
    other quad members motioning to improve the security and safety maritime domain. 65% of Australia’s international trade pass through the south china ocean
    and it focuses on the free routes and open exchange in the Indo-pacific area.
    Australia has been among the firmest adversaries of china’s regional cases toward the south china ocean. In July 2016, following the decision by a global
    council which held that china holds “no historical rights” toward the south china
    ocean dependent on the “nine-dash line” map, Australia gave a joint assertion
    with Japan and the US calling for China to keep the decision as “last and lawfully
    restricting on the two players.” Australia and India sign a ‘mutual logistics support arrangement’ at a vital summit on 4th June 2020. This will fortify participation in the indo-pacific and help construct military interoperability. During 2020
    and early 2021 we have seen a trade brawl of sorts between China and Australia.
    A conflict in which we have seen duties, demands, blacklists when china formalizes slice to Australian coal after Australia required a self-sufficient examination
    concerning the beginning of Coronavirus. Beijing forced taxes of 80 % on the
    crop after bilateral relations deteriorated. Australia revoked agreements signed
    under china’s belt and road initiative as it could reduce Australia’s influence in
    the region and also BRI to load up poorer countries with debt. This brought
    about the attenuation of bilateral ties between the two states. The connection
    between Beijing and Canberra is going through a difficult situation and this not withstanding the way that two nations have joined the regional comprehensive
    economic partnership agreement which incorporates 15 nations in the region.
    For India, Indo-Pacific addresses a free, open, comprehensive locale. In Shangri la exchange, 2018 PM Modi upheld the possibility of a rule-based, open balance, and stable
    trade environment in the Indo-pacific area, which lifts up every one of the countries on
    the tide of trade and investment. Sea-lane through south china ocean has been vital for
    India, for correspondence since the absolute starting point and entry has been unobstructed throughout the long term. India has historical rights established by practice
    and tradition to navigate the south china ocean without hindrance. Almost $200 billion
    of India’s exchange goes through the South China ocean. The security and safety of the
    Indian diaspora and their interest in the south china ocean area and East Asia is the
    obligation of the Indian state.
    Professor C. Raja Mohan has held ‘china’ as the principal factor behind India’s developing vicinity to the QUAD alliance to balance china’s tactical force for instance the
    boundary struggle in doklam and Ladakh, between two states. China has been sup-
    porting Pakistan on the Kashmir issue just as in cross-border terrorism at the UNSC.
    India’s case to UNSC’s perpetual seat has additionally been hindered by china a few
    times. Moving our concentration to India-china exchange, the regular act of unloading
    dumping cheap items has destroyed Indian manufacturing. Consequently, India has
    begun to expand its exchange and bringing down import reliance on china. Generally
    significant, the Chinese military force in the Indian Ocean presented a danger to Indian
    interests which include international rule-based order and free and open Indo-Pacific
    India has been encircled by Chinese-created ports in the Indian Ocean locale to expand
    its impact in the adjoining nations: Gwadar port in Pakistan, Hambantota port in Sri
    Lanka, and Chittagong port in Bangladesh by a pearl necklace technique. Not just this,
    China has expanded its essence in the horn of Africa by expanding the organization of
    its deployment at its Djibouti base and subsequently has been proceeding to improve
    its quality in IOR. Also, China has recovered one of the Maldivian islands-Feydhoo Finolhu island, which is almost 600km from the Indian coast. It shows that China will face
    challenges to ensure its energy supply lines and oceanic business.
    Double hook strategy incorporates two
    components Eastern Fishhook strategy
    and the Western Fishhook strategy. As a
    countermeasure, India expressed drawing
    in its littoral partners which include formidable navies in the region including the
    US, France, and Australia. As of late, India
    has expanded defense engagement with
    its eastern Indian sea neighbors which incorporate Indonesia and Australia, and island countries in the southern Indian
    Ocean area which incorporates Mauritius,
    Seychelles, Madagascar, and French regions spread across the Indian Ocean.
    Andaman and Nicobar is the tip of the Eastern Fishhook Strategy, India is investigating the chance of redesigning the facilities in Andaman and Nicobar island so as to
    project its power in the bay of Bengal and close to Malacca straits. The Indian government has begun upgrdation of Andaman and Nicobar islands which incorporates developing jetties, deep-sea harbor, and extending landing strips to facilitate the landing
    of Maritime surveillance aircraft. There is likewise a chance of creating holders for the
    positioning of the Sukhoi-20 MKI airplane consistently. The CDS has effectively implied
    the way that it will be a joint order of the three administrations and furthermore it will be
    a meeting point for the quad powers which would fill in as an edge if there should arise
    an occurrence of activity against China. In June 2002, India has marked MLSA with
    Australia which will offer help for maritime reconnaissance missions attempted by the
    two nations with the utilization of their island offices. Aside from Australia, India has additionally marked a port development project with an ASEAN country- Indonesia. It has
    consented to foster regular citizen and military facilities in the Sabang port which is sit-
    uated at the northern tip of the pro archipelago. This acts as the first fishhook strategy
    spanning across the western Indian Ocean.
    The Western Fishhook strategy began from Duqm port in Aman where India has entered into a maritime transport agreement and gas gained access facility for the Indian
    navy. Indias has likewise been working with regard to entering a concurrence with Djibouti to benefit the strategic help in the horn of Africa. Further India has expanded its
    commitment with Mauritius, Seychelles, and Madagascar. It is likewise giving help to
    these nations through training and visiting of ships as well as giving them coastal radar
    systems and few fast attack crafts. It would help India in countering Chinese exercises
    undertaken by unmanned submersibles and will likewise imply that Chinese advances
    into the Indian Ocean will be seen and countered by the Indian naval force with QUAD
    nations. In March 2020, India was acknowledged as an observer in the Indian Ocean
    Commission, this passage was worked with by France. This reinforced the ascent of
    the ‘Double fishhook strategy’ by India which is a countermeasure against china’s
    “string of pearl#s strategy.
    It is an essential success for India as it will boost ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat.’ In the scenery
    of evolving international affairs, India can decide how worldwide unions would work out
    over the long haul for her. The country had taken a huge turn in its strategy for the subcontinent by joining the gathering. The QUAD furnishes India with an amazing stage to
    propel its advantage in East Asia and strengthen the act easy policy. It will extend India’s binds with ember nations, with benefits in diplomatic leverage and sharing of burden in defense. Additionally, QUAD will furnish the country with a critical possibility in
    molding the US policies in Afghanistan-Pakistan to the benefit of the nation and will
    help India counter the belt and road initiative (BRI), especially because of the China-Pakistan economic corridor. In the midst of the US-China exchange war in the south china
    ocean, ASEAN anticipates durable responsibilities from India later on. ASEAN wants to
    collectively encourage progressively incredible china to seek after essential interests in
    a real manner, and on the basis of respect for international law, in the south china
    ocean, by the inclusion of India in Indo-Pacific affairs.
    Japan, during India-japan vital discourse in 2006, Prime minister Shinzo Abe uncovered
    the term Indo-Pacific in a talk passed on at Indian parliament in august 2007. Named
    “Confluence of the Two Seas,” It displayed japan’s vision of the Indo-Pacific as an area
    based on basic qualities. The Senkaku Islands debate concerns a regional argument
    about a gathering of uninhabited islands knows as the Diaoyu islands in individuals’ republic of china, senkaku islands in Japan. China has forcefully begun to police the waters off the Japanese-regulated senkaku islands (Diaoyutai islands). Japan has endorsed a bill to change the name of island containing senkaku islands from Tonoshiro to
    Tonoshiro Senkaku. This position was upheld by the USA as the two countries have a
    mutual defense treaty. New indications of pressures are as yet industrious in the east
    china ocean. In late February 2021, two Chinese coastguard vessels more than once
    entered japan’s regional squanders and moved toward a Japanese fishing boat close to
    the islands. Besides, two other Chinese vessels, one furnished with an autocannon,
    were cruising right external japan’s regional waters close senkakus. This can be viewed
    as a possible clash between two countries. Nov 18, 2021, Australia and Japan sign a
    landmark defense deal (Reciprocal access agreement)to counter China’s developing
    impact in the south china ocean. This deal will allow their forces to train in each other’s
    territory, as both countries seek to navigate tensions with increasingly assertive China.
    The in-principle agreement reached during Australian prime minister Scott Morrison’s
    visit to Tokyo was relied upon to pave the way for increased defense cooperation and
    joint exercises between Japan and Australia. Japan has recently marked just a single
    comparable arrangement, with its key partner the US, in 1960. When RAA is approved
    by Japan’s parliament, the agreement will mark the first time in 60 years that Tokyo has
    approved a deal permitting foreign troops to operate on its soil.
    Also, Japan is ready for any future danger as Japan’s maritime self-defense forcer, the
    coastguard holds a joint drill on March 3, 2021. This accordingly, could arise as a test
    for the Biden organization’s security commitment to one of Washington’s most significant partners in the locale.
    China is japan’s greatest trading partner under ordinary conditions. Be that as it may,
    imports from china drooped by practically half in February as the Coronavirus covered
    production lines. This in turn starved Japanese manufacturers of necessary components. The government’s panel on future investment talked about the requirement for
    the assembling of high-added esteem items to be moved back to Japan and for the
    production of other goods to be diversified across southeast Asia. Japan offers subsidies of $2.2 Billion for the organizations who might move production out of China returned and shift to Japan, India, and Bangladesh or significantly other ASEAN nations
    came to be known as the “Exit China Subsidy” program. Subsequently, boosting financial ties in the south china ocean. In a transition to counter china’s strength of the store
    network in the indo-pacific area, the exchange pastor of India, Japan, and Australia on
    April 2021 officially launched the supply chain resilience initiative (SCRI) in a virtual trilateral ministerial meeting. The SCRI plans to make an idealistic pattern of upgrading
    enhancing supply chain resilience so as to ultimately achieving strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth in the region. Expansion of the SCRI maybe is considered
    based on consensus.
    Under President Barack Obama, there was a remarkable change in the US strategy in
    the Asia-Pacific knows as a pivot to Asia. In 2011, state secretary Hillary Clinton noticed that the US should be “smart and systematic” when contributing its time and assets. Obama’s international strategy was featured by the “Asia rebalance” strategy
    which he divulged in a discourse to the Australian parliament in November 2011, three
    years into his initial term. In it, Obama announced that the U.S. was a “Pacific Nation”
    and would move its international strategy center to Asia from the middle east. the new
    approach was aimed at reasserting U.S. leadership in the region and military checking a
    rapidly emerging China in order to tap into Asia#s rapidly growing economy. Mr. Cam-
    bell was the person who drove this arrangement under this, US naval deployment from
    the Atlantic to the pacific strengthened alliances with Japan, South Korea, Australia,
    and strategic partners such as India, and paved the way for Obama#s speech in Australia. Obama became the first sitting U.S. president to visit Myanmar in 2012, the year
    the southeast Asian country moved to civilian rule, and also became a formal member
    of the East Asia Summit. Some success thus could be claimed. However, Obama policy
    shifted More towards the middle east and Europe from south Asia and thus the US ignored Chinese dominance in the south china sea. China began attesting its dominance
    in the south china sea on different reefs, islands and solidified its control of Scarborough sandbar in 2012. The U.S. failed to halt its naval build-up in the area, including the
    construction of military facilities.
    After the shift in power, Donald Trump took an extreme
    position towards China. In 2017, the Trump administration gave shape to the long-pending !QUAD” coalition,
    mainly to develop a new strategy to keep the critical
    sea routes into the indo-pacific free of any influence.
    From the principal year itself, the exchange war began
    speeding up among China and the US. Both compromised each other to force new levies and increment existing ones. China being a manufacturing superpower
    was at receiving end as the USA was hoping to remove
    china from the tech supply line and bring different players like Taiwan, South Korea, Vietnam ready. Be that as
    it may, Trump pulled out from comprehensive and progressive agreement for trans-pacific partnership
    (CPTPP) which was a setback for the US economy, as
    it solidifies china#s geopolitical ambition in the region
    This arrangement incorporates 2.1 Billion individuals,
    with RCEP’s individuals representing around 30% of
    worldwide GDP. In any case, the USA put $328.8 billion
    in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
    in the year 2017 alone. No group of nations has benefitted more from the presence of the US in the region other than ASEAN.
    In April 2018, Trump divulges plans for 25% extra taxes on $50 billion of Chinese imports. During 2018-19, the Trump organization sped up its endeavors to boycott Chinese organizations by putting them on the entity list, adding somewhere in the range of
    70 additional companies and organizations. In 2019, Washington reconsidered its fare
    control runs multiple times to target Huawei. In December 2019, U.S starts to mollify its
    position on taxes and J2020 signed a phase one trade agreement with China. In any
    case, an episode of Covid which transformed into a worldwide pandemic crumbled the
    connection between the US and china severely. Trump was seen censuring china a few
    times for the episode. In August 2020, the US lifts the “clean network” strategy in an
    attempt to exclude Chinese vendors in cloud servers, mobiles, infrastructure, and apps.
    Moreover, India-US. 2+2 Dialogue, the third 2+2 dialogue between the two countries
    and focused on security cooperation for ramping defense-related activities.
    The new U.S administration under President Joe Biden was seen as more rational
    than its predecessor, however, its intense approach on china is probably going to pro-
    ceed. Tony Blinken, Biden’s candidate for secretary of state, said at his Senate affirmation hearing that he would take an extreme position on China, which he called “the top
    priority.” For Biden, indo-pacific means securing free and open access in the south china sea. In an impression of the bipartisan agreement in Washington that progressively
    forceful china must be reined in, Biden has upped the ante by raising human-rights
    concerns, with Donald Trump largely ignored until the final months of his presidency.
    For instance, while organizing joint western activity to penalize China for its Muslim gulag, secretary of state Antony Blinken proclaimed that Beijing “keeps on perpetrating
    slaughter and violations against humankind in Xinjiang.” In 2017, the Trump organization revived the QUAD, which had been lying lethargic for a very long time. Presently, at
    Biden’s drive, the QUAD chiefs held their first-historically speaking highest point in the
    walk, 2021. The summit was testament to the fact that the Biden administration inherited a coherent and realist strategy on the Indo-Pacific, with the QUAD at its core. The
    surprise from the Biden-initiated QUAD summit was that-unlike the past meetings of
    the QUAD foreign ministers- it yielded a joint statement, which articulated a clear-eyed
    Across the board, we can say that the United States appreciates maritime predominance, freedom of navigation, security commitments to regional states in South East
    Asia. American military presence has managed the cost of ASEAN nations the chance
    to seek after economic prosperity without a significant expansion in their own safeguard consumptions. The Indo-pacific has succeeded under American authority for the
    past 40 years.
    Since 2006, China has been progressively decisive about its advantage in the pacific
    locale, however, the development has its own difficulties. China’s forceful position on
    the ‘Nine-Dash Line’ in the South China Sea is now notable to the world. China claims,
    improving relations with pacific island countries are just a consequence of their increasing economic powers, but analysts believe that it comes from china#s desire to become
    a world superpower. The islands in the pacific seas are arranged into three significant
    gatherings Malaysia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Customarily the international relations
    of this district were firmly connected with the US and Australia. The US keeps various
    army installations in the pacific. After The Second Great War, the western nations didn’t
    give a lot of consideration to the pacific. The locale was back in the concentrate solely
    after china’s presence increased. The first and foremost objective of Beijing#s pacific
    policy is to replace the USA in the pacific region as a regional hegemony. Once established, china’s prevailing situation in the pacific locale would permit her to challenge US
    military capacities. Second, China has consistently been trying to weaken the Taiwanese state by wielding influence on her diplomatic allies and poaching them in favor
    of her own. The Third objective of china#s pacific policy is to expand the Chinese alliance worldwide in order to generate greater bargaining powers at the international level. Therefore, with the exception of Papua new guinea, all island nations in the pacific
    locale have become significant exchange accomplices of China. The enormous loaning
    by china has additionally gotten Chinese state-possessed organizations as critical
    “competitors to the local companies.” It is expected that utilizing her ‘Debt Trap Diplomacyy’ china would attempt to set up army installations in the locales. As per the New
    York Times article, china played a comparable stunt on account of Hambantota port in
    Srilanka. Besides, India has been a significant part of the Indian Ocean as well however
    china needed to change the status quo through her Belt and Road initiative (BRI)
    On first January 2013, china gives another guide, which interestingly set apart exhaustively in excess of 130 islands, reefs, shoals in the south china ocean that Beijing claims
    inside U-shaped lines. China’s claims over the south china sea and Chinese occupation
    in regional waters and islands of adjoining nations are violations of UNCLOS. China, in
    any case, dismissed the 2016 arbitral rule as it advances its claim base on the argument that the SCS and the islands within this body of water have been in the Chinese
    possession for centuries dating back as far as the Han Dynasty in the second century
    AD. China has been manufacturing proof of history as an apparatus for snatching this
    region. It has been attempting to affirm its predominance through ‘The nine-dash line’
    which alludes to the vague, ambiguously found, boundary line utilized by China for their
    claims of the significant piece of the south china ocean. The challenged region in the
    south china sea includes the parcel islands, the Spratly islands, parts islands, the Macclesfield Bank, and the Scarborough Shoal. The claim encompasses the area of Chinese land reclamation knows as the !great wall of sand.”
    In the first half of 2020, naval forces have rammed a Vietnamese fishing boat, buzzed a
    Philippines naval vessel, and harassed a Malaysian oil drilling operation all within their
    respective EEZ#s. Simultaneously, ASEAN overtook the European Union to turn into
    china#s largest trading partner in the first quarter of 2020, and China is the third-largest
    investor (4150 billion) in ASEAN.
    US-China Rivalry has demanded a cost for Southeast Asian nations. China is introducing a parallel decision to southeast Asia to pick among China and the USA in the midst
    of a trade war between these countries. China is likewise planning to make an authoritative reach through economic statecraft and military modernization. The greatest danger from the Chinese army installations will be looked at by these Southeast Asian nations as they will indeed become playgrounds of enormous superpowers. In the Pacific
    assertion, Samoa is the main illustration of china’s debt-trap diplomacy as china represents as much as 40% obligation of this little island country.
    Australia, Japan, India, and the United States have totally legitimate concerns about
    China. It will be uncomfortable living with all the more powerful china. Furthermore, it is
    similarly genuine for them to support by coordinating in the Quadrilateral Security Dialog, casually knowns as QUAD. Lamentably, the QUAD probably won’t modify the direction of Asian history for two basic reasons: First, the four have diverse international
    interests and weaknesses. Second, they may be in some unacceptable game. The
    enormous vital game in Asia isn’t military but economic. “All the more extensively, the
    alleged ‘Quadrilateral’ isn’t taking off.”
    Australia is the most vulnerable. Its economy is profoundly reliant upon China. Australians have been pleased with their astounding thirty years of recession-free growth.
    That happened simply because Australia turned out to be practical, a financial area of
    china: in 2018-2019, 33 percent went to China, though just 5% went to the US. The issue for Canberra is that China holds the greater part of the cards. Power in international
    relations lies with the country that can impose high costs on another country at a low
    cost to itself. This is how China can deal with Australia. India remains ambivalent about
    the U.S. agenda on china and will hedge in any activism against china. A rapprochement between Japan and china Is additionally proof… so Japan isn’t pursuing any program of control of China. Various vis-à-vis experiences among Chinese and Indian
    troopers in June 2020 have spread a wave of hostility to china notion. While India has
    unmistakably solidified its situation in china since 2019 because of the boundary dbate, border dispute, it is, however, unlikely to become a clear U.S. ally. Japan, is also
    vulnerable but in a different way. Japan, is additionally helpless however in an alternate way. Australia is lucky to have well-disposed neighbors in the relationship of
    Southeast Asian Nations. Japan just has antagonistic neighbors: China, Russia, South
    Korea. It has troublesome, even tense, relations with each of the three. It can oversee
    relations with Russia and South Korea as both have more modest economies however
    the Japanese are intensely mindful that they currently need to conform to considerably
    more remarkable china once more. Yet this is not a new phenomenon. Except for the
    primary portion of the twentieth century, Japan has almost always lived in peace with
    its more powerful neighbor China. “The Soviet Union lost the cold war because the U.S.
    economy could vastly outspend it.” Similarly, just as the United Stated presented china
    with a major geopolitical gift by withdrawing from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)
    trade agreement in 2017. India also did major geopolitical favor by not joining the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Economics is where the big
    game is playing. With the united state’s ecosystem out of TPP and India out of RCEP, a
    massive economic ecosystem centered on china is evolving in the region. It is suggesed that Biden should promptly move to fill the Jakarta-based ambassadorship to
    ASEAN that has long sat vacant. In addition, the U.S. needs to show a willingness to
    cooperate with ASEAN-led international conferences, such as by having Biden take
    part in the East Asia Summit, which Trump never attended.
    FOUR LETTERS IN QUAD. Here#s one statistic to ponder on: In 2009, the size of the
    retail merchandise market in china was $1.8 trillion contrasted and $4 trillion for that
    market in the US. After ten years, the respective numbers were $6 trillion and $5.5 trillion. China’s complete imports in the coming decade will probably surpass $22 trillion.
    Similarly as the gigantic U.S. consumer market during the 1970s and 1980s crushed
    the soviet union, the monstrous and developing Chinese customer market will be eventually the choice of the large international game. Across the board, QUAD needs to
    make a shift from the military alliance to economic alliances.
    For almost 16 years, the QUAD failed to go beyond being a talking shop. Its promises
    did not translate into action on the ground. But this time, four clear and specific areas
    of cooperation have been identified and again the four countries have gathered to stabilize the strategies that would guarantee open balance and a stable trade environment
    in the Indo-pacific region. QUAD doesn#t fear the Chinese economic rise but wants to
    contain china#s hyper-nationalism move which more or less is asserting its dominance
    in the region. Apropos to the current scenario, it can be noted that QUAD is emerging
    as one of the most important groupings of four democracies which will counterbalance
    the increasingly aggressive behavior in the south china sea, which will somehow benefit
    the Southeast Asian countries.
    t1820149.shtml rose-in-2017-government-data/articleshow/62793038.cms?from=mdr

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aim to deliberate on the root causes of global terrorism and to present effective solutions to the problems faced by society.

Selected intern’s day-to-day responsibilities include:

1. Providing administrative support for organizing round tables, workshops, seminars, conferences,               meetings, and coordination over the telephone and email
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3. Providing research support for projects through data mining
4. Scanning journals and new articles to provide a bibliography related to the subject matter
5. Working on data collection from primary and secondary sources
Only those candidates can apply who:
1. are available for the work from home job/internship
2. can start the work from home job/internship between 6th Sept’21 and 20th Sept’21
3. are available for duration of 6 months
4. have relevant skills and interests

Interested Candidates are welcome to contribute and need to apply by 20th September.

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Understanding Cyber TERRORISM

Author: -Karampreet Kaur Malhotra
Designation:-Research Coordinator, GCTC
Area of Interest:-International laws and relations, Cyberwarfare, Corporate laws, Counter-Terrorism, Security laws, legal remedies.

The traditional concepts and methods of terrorism have taken new dimensions, which are more destructive and deadly in nature. In the age of information technology, the terrorists have acquired the expertise to produce the most deadly combination of weapons and technology, which if not properly safeguarded in due course of time, will take its own toll. The damage so produced would be almost irreversible and most catastrophic in nature. In short, we are facing the worst form of terrorism popularly known as “Cyber Terrorism”
Public interest in cyber-terrorism began in the late 1990s when the term was coined by Barry C. Collin, as “the intentional abuse of digital information system, network, or component toward an end that supports or facilitates a terrorist campaign or action”.
As 2000 approached, the fear and uncertainty about the millennium bug heightened, as did the potential for attacks by cyber terrorists. Although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possible large-scale devastating cyber-attack. Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports.
The high-profile terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, and the ensuing War on Terror by the US-led to further media coverage of the potential threats of cyber terrorism in the years following. Mainstream media coverage often discusses the possibility of a large attack making use of computer networks to sabotage critical infrastructures with the aim of putting human lives in jeopardy or causing disruption on a national scale either directly or by disruption of the national economy. The world was shocked by the despicable attacks and loss of innocent life on Sept 11, 2001, carried out by 19 airplane hijackers on a suicide mission. But that tragedy, horrific as it was, could be dwarfed by just one or two skilled Internet users who don’t even set foot in their target country. It is frightening to imagine the human and economic toll of computer systems.
The nature of cyber terrorism covers conduct involving computer or Internet technology that:

  1. is motivated by a political, religious, or ideological cause
  2. is intended to intimidate a government or a section of the public to varying degrees
  3. seriously interferes with infrastructure

The term “cyber terrorism” can be used in a variety of different ways, but there are limits to its use. An attack on an Internet business can be labeled cyber terrorism, however, when it is done for economic motivations rather than ideological it is typically regarded as cybercrime. Various definitions limit the label “cyber terrorism” to actions by individuals, independent groups, or organizations. Any form of cyber warfare conducted by governments and states would be regulated and punishable under international law.
The most widely cited paper on the issue of Cyber terrorism is Denning’s Testimony before the Special Oversight Panel on Terrorism (Denning, 2000). Here, she makes the following statement: “Cyber terrorism is the convergence of terrorism and cyberspace. It is generally understood to mean unlawful attacks and threats of attack against computers, networks, and the information stored therein when done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people in furtherance of political or social objectives. Further, to qualify as cyber terrorism, an attack should result in violence against persons or property, or at least cause enough harm to generate fear. Attacks that lead to death or bodily injury, explosions, plane crashes, water contamination, or severe economic loss would be examples. Serious attacks against critical infrastructures could be acts of cyber terrorism, depending on their impact. Attacks that disrupt nonessential services or that are mainly a costly nuisance would not.”
While Denning’s definition is solid, it also raises some interesting issues. First, she points out that this definition is usually limited to issues where the attack is against “computers, networks, and the information stored therein”, which we would argue is ‘Pure Cyber terrorism’. Indeed, we believe that the true impact of her opening statement (“the convergence of terrorism and cyberspace”) is realized not only when the attack is launched against computers, but when many of the other factors and abilities of the virtual world are leveraged by the terrorist in order to complete his mission, whatever that may be. Thus, only one aspect of this convergence is generally considered in any discussion of cyber terrorism — an oversight that could be costly. Second, it is very different from the definition that appears to be operationally held by the media and the public at large.
The FBI defined Cyber Terrorism, “the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer system, computer programs and data which results in violence against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents”.”
Security expert Dorothy Denning defines cyber terrorism as ‘… politically motivated hacking operations intended to cause grave harm such as loss of life or severe economic damage.
NATO defines cyber terrorism as “a cyber-attack using or exploiting computer or communication networks to cause sufficient destruction or disruption to generate fear or to intimidate a society into an ideological goal.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) defines cyber terrorism as, “Unlawful attacks and threats of attack against computers, networks, and the information stored therein when done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people in furtherance of political or social objectives”.
The Technologies Institute defines cyber terrorism as “The premeditated use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, against computers and/or networks, with the intention to cause harm or further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives, or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives.”
The United States National Infrastructure Protection Centre defined cyber terrorism as: “A criminal act perpetrated by the use of computers and telecommunications capabilities resulting in violence, destruction, and/or disruption of services to create fear by causing confusion and uncertainty within a given population, with the goal of influencing a government or population to conform to a political, social, or ideological agenda.”
These definitions tend to share the view of cyber terrorism as politically and/or ideologically inclined. One area of debate is the difference between cyber terrorism and hacktivism. Hacktivism is “the marriage of hacking with political activism”. Both actions are politically driven and involve using computers; however cyber terrorism is primarily used to cause harm. It becomes an issue because acts of violence on the computer can be labeled either cyber terrorism or hacktivism.

When terrorism is examined in view of these definitions, there are some pervasive elements: people (or groups), locations (of perpetrators, facilitators, and victims), methods/modes of action; tools, targets, affiliations, and motivations.
On examining these elements in terms of the definitions provided by the government agencies, we see there is congruence between the terrorism event and the definitions used by the various agencies tasked with providing protection. This congruence is a good thing, as it results in people tasked with defense being able to determine that certain functional tasks fit within the definitions used within their agencies/organizations. For example, as mentioned above, the United States Department of State (DOS) defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents”. Thus, the activities of both of these groups fit the DOS criteria for ‘terrorism’.
a.Forms of Cyber Terrorism
Cyber terrorism as mentioned is a very serious issue and it covers a wide range of attacks. Here, the kind of indulgence is asked toward the definition of Cyber Crime. “Cyber Crime” is a crime that is enabled by, or that targets computers. Cyber Crime can involve the theft of intellectual property, a violation of patent, trade secret, or copyright laws. However, cybercrime also includes attacks against computers to deliberately disrupt the processing or may include espionage to make unauthorized copies of classified data. Some of the major tools of cybercrime may be Botnets, Estonia, 2007, Malicious Code Hosted on Websites, Cyber Espionage, etc. It is pertinent to mark here that there are other forms that could be covered under the heading of Cyber Crime & simultaneously are also the important tools for terrorist activities. Discussing these criminal activities one by one area:

  1. Attack on Infrastructure

Our banks and financial institutions; air, sea, rail, and highway transportation systems; telecommunications; electric power grids; oil and natural gas supply lines-all are operated, controlled, and facilitated by advanced computers, networks, and software. Typically, the control centers and major nodes in these systems are more vulnerable to cyber than a physical attack, presenting a considerable opportunity for cyber terrorists. There, could be possible consequences of a cyber-terrorism act against an infrastructure or business, with a division of costs into direct and indirect implications:
i. Direct Cost Implications by cyber terrorism:
– Loss of sales during the disruption
– Staff time, network delays, irregular access for business users
– Increased insurance costs due to litigation
– Loss of intellectual property – research, pricing, etc.
– Costs of forensics for recovery and litigation
– Loss of critical communications in time of emergency
ii. Indirect Cost Implications by cyber terrorism:
– Loss of confidence and credibility in our financial systems
– Tarnished relationships and public image globally
– Strained business partner relationships – domestic and internationally
– Loss of future customer revenues for an individual or group of companies
– Loss of trust in the government and computer industry.
iii. Attacks on Human Life:

  • In the case of an air traffic system that is mainly computerized and is set to establish the flight routes for the airplanes, calculating the flight courses for all the planes in the air to follow. Also, plane pilots have to check the course as well as the other planes being around using the onboard radar systems that are not connected to external networks; therefore it can be attacked by the cyber-terrorist.
  • A different example would be the act of cyber-terrorism against a highly automated factory or plant production of any kind of product: food, equipment, vehicles, etc. In case this organization is highly reliant on technological control, including a human control only at the end of production, not on the checkpoint stages, then any malfunction would be extremely hard to point out, fix and as a result to spot out a cyber-crime being committed.
  1. Privacy violation

The law of privacy is the recognition of the individual’s right to be let alone and to have his personal space inviolate.’ The right to privacy as an independent and distinctive concept originated in the field of Tort law. In recent times, however, this right has acquired a constitutional status in Rajagopal v. State of Tamil Nadu; the violation of which attracts both civil as well as criminal consequences under the respective laws. Modern enterprise and invention have, through invasions upon his privacy, subjected him to mental pain and distress, far greater than could be inflicted by mere bodily injury. The right to privacy is a part of the right to life and personal liberty enshrined under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. With the advent of information technology, the traditional concept of the right to privacy has taken new dimensions, which require a different legal outlook. To meet this challenge recourse of the Information Technology Act, 2000 can be taken. The various provisions of the Act protect the online privacy rights of net users.
These rights are available against private individuals as well as against cyber terrorists. Section (2) read with Section 75 of the Act provides for an extraterritorial application of the provisions of the Act. Thus, if a person including a foreign national contravenes the privacy of an individual by means of a computer, computer system, or computer network located in India, he would be liable under the provisions of the Act. This makes it clear that the jurisdiction is equally available against a cyber-terrorist, whose act has resulted in the damage of the property, whether tangible or intangible.

  1. Secret information appropriation and data theft:

The information technology can be misused for appropriating the valuable Government secrets and data of private individuals and the Government and its agencies. A computer network owned by the Government may contain valuable information concerning defense and other top secrets which the Government will not wish to share otherwise. The same can be targeted by the terrorists to facilitate their activities, including the destruction of property. It must be noted that the definition of property is not restricted to moveable or immoveable alone.
In R.K. Dalmia v. Delhi Administration, the Supreme Court held that the word “property” is used in the I.P.C in a much wider sense than the expression “movable property”. There is no good reason to restrict the meaning of the word “property” to the moveable property only when it is used without any qualification. Whether the offense defined in a particular section of IPC can be committed in respect of any particular kind of property, will depend not on the interpretation of the word “property” but on the fact whether that particular kind of property can be subject to the acts covered by that section.

  1. Demolition of e-governance base

The aim of e-governance is to make hassle-free interaction of the citizens with the government offices and to share information in a free and transparent manner. It further makes the right to information a meaningful reality. In P.U.C.L. V. U.O.I the SC specified the grounds on which the government can withhold information relating to various matters, including trade secrets. The Supreme Court observed: “Every right, legal or moral carries with it a corresponding objection. It is subjected to several exemptions/ exceptions indicated in broad terms”.
In a nutshell, Cyber terrorists use various tools and methods to unleash their terrorism. Some of the major tools are as follows:

  1. Hacking
  2. Cryptography
  3. Trojan Attacks
  4. Computer worms
  5. Computer viruses
  6. Denial of service attacks
  7. E-mail related crimes

b. Motives behind any Attacks are:

  1. Putting the public or any section of the public in fear; or
  2. Affecting adversely the harmony between different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities; or
  3. Coercing or overawing the government established by law; or
  4. Endangering the sovereignty and integrity of the nation.

c. The terrorism matrix
When terrorism is examined in view of these definitions, there are some pervasive elements: people (or groups), locations (of perpetrators, facilitators, and victims), methods/modes of action; tools, targets, affiliations, and motivations. When we examine the elements in these categories in terms of the definitions provided by the government agencies, we see there is congruence between the terrorism event and the definitions used by the various agencies tasked with providing protection. This congruence is a good thing, as it results in people tasked with defense being able to determine that certain functional tasks fit within the definitions used within their agencies/organizations. For example, as mentioned above, the United States Department of State (DOS) defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents”. Thus, the activities of both of these groups fit the DOS criteria for ‘terrorism’.
Interactions between human beings are complex; while the obvious solutions gravitate toward monitoring, we are concerned with the virtualization of interactions, which can lead to relative anonymity and desensitization. Topics of interest include methods to measure and diminish the impact of computer-mediated interactions on potential recruits and the ability for defenders to use virtual identities to influence intra- and inter-group dynamics (dissension, ‘behind the scenes’ communication, and destabilization).
Location exists as an element but is not a ‘required’ element in traditional terrorism in that an event does not have to occur in a particular location. Thus, whether an act is virtual/virtual, virtual/real-world, or real-world/virtual is of interest only as a factor in modeling solutions. In addition, the Internet has introduced globalization of the environments. Actions that take place in virtual environments have demonstrably had real-world consequences. An April Fool’s Day hoax posted to Usenet demonstrated this when claims of the resignation of Canadian Finance Minister Paul Martin resulted in the decrease in value of the Canadian dollar.
In traditional scenarios, terrorist scenarios typically are violent or involve threats of violence. While there have been many studies of violence in the physical world, more research is called for in terms of ‘violence’ as a virtual phenomenon. Violence in virtual environments is a relatively new field, with many unanswered questions. These open issues include the psychological effects of traditional real-world violence portrayed in virtual environments, possible behavior modification resulting from violence in virtual environments, physical trauma from virtual violence, and the use of virtual violence in military training. However, despite the prevalence of traditional violence portrayed in virtual environments, ‘cyber violence’ is still very much an unknown quantity. For example, the destruction of someone’s computer with a hammer constitutes a violent act. Should destruction of the data on that machine by a virus also be considered ‘violence’? Perhaps violence should be considered in terms of hostile action, or threat thereof!
There is an almost uncountable number of ways that the terrorist can use the computer as a tool. Facilitating identity theft, computer viruses, hacking, and use of malware, destruction, or manipulation of data all fall under this category. These uses of the computer, when combined with ‘computer as target’ form the ‘traditional’ picture of cyber terrorism.
There are a large number of potential targets that involve, either directly or indirectly, computers. Consider, for example, the impact of Personal Identity Theft. While the incidence of identity theft is comparatively low, the impact of theft upon the unfortunate soul whose ID is stolen can be large: terrorists could use the stolen identity to mask their work, carrying out certain operations under their target’s name, not their own. This would help evade detection by authorities, as well as potentially acting as a ‘signal’ that identity or operation had been compromised. The Internet, especially the essentially useless authentication provided by email, provides the perfect breeding ground for identity theft. Another interesting twist on this scenario is that of ‘virtual identity theft. For example, many users have multiple online personalities or profiles. Conceptually, there may be reasons why a terrorist would benefit from stealing a user’s online identity. Attacks could be as trivial as exploiting trusts relationships with other users when logged in as the stolen identity, to the planting of Trojans, etc., via ‘trusted’ email. Similarly, the rise of online stock trading and stock message boards has created an environment in which it is possible to deliberately manipulate a stock price (perhaps via a stolen identity). A terrorist could use such techniques as a funding source, or even attempt to move the markets towards chaos. Thus, a well-organized virtual attack upon a bank or corporation’s stock rather than the bank or corporation itself, could in fact prove to be highly effective. In the opinion of the authors, all of the attacks mentioned above are more likely to be successful when carried out against individual users or corporations rather than governments. However, governmental control currently relies heavily on the stability of the overall economy; thus economic destabilization is a viable attack against a government as well as the attacked third-party entity. Using the terrorism matrix, effective solutions for computers as ‘target’ can be conceptualized and designed, but these will be useless overall unless problems (technical, social, legal) arising from the interaction of computers with every cell of the terrorism matrix is addressed. If I can buy a ticket for an unknown ‘friend’ in Bulgaria to fly to London and blow up the London Eye, antivirus software on the computer controlling the London Eye is of little relevance.
It is possible for a person to read all about a given cause and chat with proponents of the cause without ever leaving the safety of his or her own home. New recruits can thus become affiliated with a terrorist group, commit to carrying out given actions, all without ever actually coming into contact with another human being. At the same time, these loose affiliations can complicate investigations and confuse media reports. Additionally, the introduction of computing technology facilitates alliances between groups with similar agendas; this type of affiliation can result in a strengthening of the individual organizations as they can immediately acquire access to the information resources of their allies.
Political, social, and economic changes are the motivations present in real-world terrorism. Combining a dependence on Internet-connected systems for banking and E-commerce with the ability of anyone with a desire and readily available tool to disrupt these areas, results in a situation that is all too clear: unless steps are taken to significantly reduce risks, disaster is inevitable. Even with the best risk reduction, there are still likely to be problems.
d. Pure Cyber Terrorism
The concept of ‘pure’ cyber terrorism, that is, terrorism activities that are carried out entirely (or primarily); in the virtual world is an interesting one. The Internet provides many different ways of anonymously meeting with ‘like-minded’ individuals in a safe way. Furthermore, a successful cyber terrorism event could require no more prerequisite than knowledge; something that is essentially free to the owner once acquired, and an asset that can be used over and over again. Thus, it would be possible that such an environment could facilitate the creation of entirely new terrorist groups no monies would be required for actions, and members could organize themselves quickly and easily in the anonymity of cyberspace. This is very different from certain examples given above, where the computer can aid the task of the terrorist, but ‘real’ resources are still required to execute the plan. It is this pure cyber terrorism that most writers mean when they discuss the dangers posed by the cyber-terrorist, and this compartmentalization poses a significant barrier to our ability to protect ourselves. One question that has not been adequately addressed is, what this terrorism might look like. At this time, there is much confusion, based largely upon a lack of agreement in definitions. However, using ‘traditional’ terrorism models should help make the situation more suited to analysis, and this is certainly a topic for future research.
e. Computers — The Weapons Of The Cyber Terrorist
Following on from the discussions above, it becomes obvious that the most likely ‘weapon’ of the cyber-terrorist is the computer. Thus, one might ask, are we arguing that one should restrict access to computers, just as access to explosives is restricted? Not actually in the same sense but close to it. It is believed that the stockpile of connected computers needs to be protected. There are many laws that define how one should protect a firearm from illegal/dangerous use. The mandatory use of trigger locks, though controversial, has been put forward to prevent danger should the gun end up in the wrong hands. Similarly, powerful explosives like C4 are not simply sold over the counter at the corner store. Explosives and guns are certainly not entirely analogous to computers. A better analogy might stem from the concept of an ‘attractive nuisance’. For example, a homeowner shares some responsibility for injury caused by a pool on his property, it is deemed an attractive nuisance, and as such, the innocent should be prevented from simply being attracted and harmed. Thus, there are many instances of laws that already discuss the damage done by or to a third party from the intentional/unintentional misuse of a piece of corporate or personal property. The application of these laws or the definition of ‘misuse’ with respect to computers seems unclear. However, there is a need for clear laws and standards that require operators of large networks of Internet-connected computers to exercise appropriate due diligence in their upkeep and security.
To this end, it was believed that there is an urgent need for a definition of a minimum standard of security for computer networks. The definition of such a standard has far-reaching implications not only for the usability of America’s technology foundation, but the security of corporations and indeed of the nation itself. By formalizing an industry best practice guideline, companies will have a clear understanding of what must be carried out. Clearly, such a guideline is a moving target, but its inception would allow the structuring of a valid and robust posture against both terrorist threats and other hostile entities.
Such a set of minimum standards would have to be easily and affordably supported by the security/application vendors themselves, rather than relying on individual user’s needs/requirements to drive the best practice guidelines. This is not exactly a novel concept. International standards have been developed in other areas where safety and security are a concern. Consider the airline industry. There are international guidelines for airport safety; in cases where these standards are not met, consequences range from warnings to prohibited travel. The needs for such changes, and how a due diligence standard could be created are subjects of future research. However, it seems clear that such standards are urgently needed.

  • Methods of Attacks

The most popular weapon in cyber terrorism is the use of computer viruses and worms. That is why in some cases of cyber terrorism is also called ‘computer terrorism’. The attacks or methods on the computer infrastructure can be classified into three different categories.
Physical Attack– The computer infrastructure is damaged by using conventional methods like bombs, fire, etc.
Syntactic Attack– The computer infrastructure is damaged by modifying the logic of the system to introduce delay or make the system unpredictable. Computer viruses and Trojans are used in this type of attack.
Semantic Attack– This is more treacherous as it exploits the confidence of the user in the system. During the attack the information keyed in the system during entering and exiting the system is modified without the user’s knowledge to induce errors, Cybercrime isn’t just constrained to deadening PC foundations, yet it has gone a long way past that. It is additionally the utilization of PCs, the Internet and data portals to help the customary types of fear-based oppression like suicide bombings. Web and email can be utilized for sorting out a psychological militant assault too. Most regular utilization of the Internet is by planning and transferring sites on which false purposeful publicity can be glued. This goes under the classification of utilizing innovation for mental fighting.

  • Tools of Cyber Terrorism

Cyber terrorists use certain tools and methods to unleash this new age of terrorism. These are:
i. Hacking- The most popular method used by a terrorist. It is a generic term used for any kind of unauthorized access to a computer or a network of computers. Some ingredient technologies like packet sniffing, tempest attack, password cracking, and buffer outflow facilitates hacking.
ii. Trojans- Programmes which pretend to do one thing while actually the~ are meant for doing something different, like the wooden Trojan Horse of the 1z’ Century BC.
iii. Computer Viruses- It is a computer program, which infects other computer, programs by modifying them. They spread very fast.
iv. Computer Worm- The term ‘worm’ in relation to computers is a self-contained program or a set of programs that can spread functional copies of itself or its segments to other computer systems usually via network connections.
v. E-Mail Related Crime- Usually worms and viruses must attach themselves to a host program to be injected. Certain emails are used as hosts by viruses and worms. E-mails are also used for spreading disinformation, threats, and defamatory stuff.
vi. Denial of Service- These attacks are aimed at denying authorized persons access to a computer or computer network.
vii. Cryptology- Terrorists have started using encryption, high-frequency encrypted voice/data links, etc. It would be a Herculean task to decrypt the information terrorist is sending by using 512-bit symmetric encryption.

  1. Future Research

Certainly, there are many unanswered questions. Most people, governments included, consider cyber terrorism primarily as the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. However, as we have seen, the real impact of the computer on the terrorism matrix is considerably wider. By limiting our understanding of cyber terrorism to the traditional ‘computer as target’ viewpoint, we leave our nation open to attacks that rely on the computer for other aspects of the operation. Even when considering the purely virtual impact of cyber terrorism, the approach is not adequately thought out. For example, consider an act that incorporated a desire for political change with the release of an otherwise benign computer virus within which an anti-government message is embedded.
For example, if the Melissa virus had contained the message “The Clinton regime must be defeated”, would it have been the act of a terrorist instead of a misguided computer programmer, and would the ultimate punishment really fit the crime if that programmer were meted out the same punishment as the terrorists responsible for blowing up a US embassy? What role does incitement to violence play? A swastika emblazed on the WWW site of UK politician John Major may constitute some violation of a law, but probably does not constitute terrorism. But what if swastikas were digitally painted on the WWW sites of every Jewish organization in the country? What if a message was included inciting people to violence against their Jewish neighbors? Would these acts fall under the domain of ‘using violence’? What if these images and messages were put there by a known terrorist organization? Would the act take on the characteristic of the perpetrator? Would these acts be hate crimes or cyber terrorism? Given the lack of physical boundaries in the virtual community, does a group’s physical location have any bearing on whether or not they may be considered a sub-national group? What is a ‘national group’ in cyberspace anyway? Which government agency deals with that? What constitutes combatant targets in virtual environments? Consider the 1998 response by the Pentagon to civilian target computers as a response to Flood net protests. Is the system that automatically strikes back considered combatant? Are its owners moved from ‘non-combatant’ to ‘combatant’ based on an auto-response? Is the response perhaps engaging in ‘violence’? Some claim “terrorists and activists have bombed more than 600 computer facilities”. What specific components may be considered an element of a cyber system; what differentiates these incidents from conventional terrorism? Physical property, civil disorder, and economic harm are easily understood in the physical world; however, are there virtual equivalents that could lead to a broadening of the concept of cyber terrorism?

  1. Defending Against The New Terrorism

Defending against terrorism where a computer or the Internet plays an important part in the terrorism matrix is very similar to defending against terrorism that does not. The regular practices (deterrence, law, defense, negotiations, diplomacy, etc.) are still effective, except that the scope of certain elements is expanded. For example, traditional strikes against military bases, targeting of key leaders, and collective punishment have been effective in traditional terrorism and certainly have the potential for dealing with some aspects of cyber terrorism. These techniques are often presented and can be to be updated to include their ‘virtual counterparts. It should be noted, however, that differences in international law and culture could make this process a complex task. Crenshaw presented here at length, examines a summary of traditional counterterrorist techniques:


Governments can use their coercive capacity to make terrorism too costly for those who seek to use it. They can do this by military strikes against terrorist bases, assassinations of key leaders, collective punishment, or other methods. There are several drawbacks to this approach, however. On the one hand, it can lead to unacceptable human rights violations. In addition, groups may not come to government attention until movements are so well developed that efforts to contain them through deterrent methods are insufficient.


Governments can treat terrorism primarily as a crime and therefore pursue the extradition, prosecution and incarceration of suspects. One drawback to this approach is that the prosecution of terrorists in a court of law can compromise government efforts to gather intelligence on terrorist organizations. In addition, criminal justice efforts (like deterrent efforts) are deployed mostly after terrorists have struck, meaning that significant damage and loss of life may have already occurred.


Governments can make targets harder to attack, and they can use intelligence capabilities to gain advanced knowledge of when attacks may take place. As targets are hardened, however, some terrorist groups may shift their sights to softer targets. An example is the targeting of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998 by truck bombs. Although the attacks are believed to have been coordinated by individuals with Middle Eastern ties, targets in Africa were chosen because of their relatively lax security compared with targets in the Middle East.


Governments can elect into negotiations with terrorist groups and make concessions in exchange for the groups’ renunciation of violence. While governments are often reluctant to do so at the beginning of terror campaigns, negotiations may be the only way to resolve some long-standing disputes.
For example, data gathering and monitoring operations of terrorist communications have typically been applied to signal intelligence and fieldwork. In a virtual environment, the ability to gather information from various sources is eminently achievable in a somewhat automated manner. Specific groups can be watched easily, and computers are comparatively simple to ‘bug’. All contacts that a particular user interacts with could then be tracked, and the network of communication mapped. Furthermore, much of this surveillance can be carried out over the very same network that the terrorists intend to use to facilitate their plot.
This extension, however, must be carried out with care. Consider, for example, the original US export regulations on the export of ‘strong encryption’ (ITAR). Under such regulations, certain encryption products were classified as munitions. While ITAR has since been replaced, the revamped ‘Export Administration Regulations’ (DOC, 2002), while somewhat more relaxed, continue to blacklist several countries from receiving encryption products, despite the fact that strong encryption technology is freely available via the Internet. While this law seems to be aimed at preventing the use of strong encryption by other potentially hostile governments and terrorist entities, strong encryption algorithms and implementations remain trivially available to pretty much anyone.
This classification of knowledge as munitions seems to be the ultimate and flawed extension of traditional anti-terrorist tactics into the virtual realm. Clearly, it is not sufficient to quickly draw analogies that are not, in fact, correct. A far better approach is to carefully consider the impact of the computer in the different cells of the terrorism matrix. For example, banning the export of encryption from just America is akin to banning the sale of C4 only on weekdays, the asset would be hard even an inconvenience to the would-be terrorists. A far better solution is to consider the safeguard in the context of the virtual world. When examined in this aspect, for example, it is reasonably clear that the original classification of encryption products as munitions is not likely to be effective. Similarly, while the use of export-grade encryption can result in the ability of officials to read some terrorist communiqués, a restrictive “export to here, not here” ban is unlikely to succeed in any meaningful way.
A forward-looking approach to terrorism that involves computers is therefore highly contextual in its basis. Traditional antiterrorism defenses must be deployed, but these countermeasures must fully take into account the virtual factors.



Social media and terrorism have come out as life-threatening issues, with the fast and rapidly changing world, terrorist organizations have also adopted high technologies and started using social media as a medium to attract followers, interact with them and whether to take responsibility for their actions or to follow their plan, they have started taking the digital way. The world saw the starting of terrorism and the link to the digital world during the end 20th century. To understand the concept of social media and terrorism we need to understand first the term “Social media” and “Terrorism” separately. Terrorism is defined in many ways, and with so many definitions, terrorism in India is defined as Any intentional act of violence that causes death, injury, property damage, induces fear, and is targeted again any group of people identified by their political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature. Whereas social media is a space of cyber-based applications which allows the creation of UGC (user-generated content) on websites and apps such as Facebook, Twitter, and so on, with blogs being the starting of such content. Social media has become an effective way for terrorist organizations to recruit, interact and manage the whole plan of action through its help. Terrorist organizations such as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria or Al-Qaeda and many others have started publishing their plans on social media to create havoc among the communities and to induce fear among people. With the increased usage of social media by terror organizations, it has become a matter of life-threatening issue, you never know when any one of your family, friends, or known gets trapped into such activities and is radicalized. Social media has millions and billions of users due to its user-friendly activities and with such a large population the terrorist must find it easy to communicate with anyone, know their ideology and keep in touch whenever and wherever. With easy options of information sharing and poor privacy, terrorists find it convenient and fast enough to use social media. Various forums and social media platforms with their groups are consistently increasing with time. Extremists and terror organizations opt for many ways to trap people where one of the ways is to redirect users on their pages or websites and either taking information out of their visit or by engaging them with their ideology. Government, cybercrime departments, Intelligence agencies all have to monitor the social media websites and analyze activities making the application owners or companies like Google, Facebook, and so on under pressure to increase up their security and to cooperate with the government as well. In 2011, Al-Qaeda launched its “Jihadist Cloud” and its members have encouraged the development of media mujahidin since then. Every day a huge amount of propaganda is posted online to recruit and to interact and absorb they interact on more.
personal and closed pages/forums created by them. Between all this, the main motive of terrorist organizations and extremist groups is to strengthen their propaganda and maintain unity among them. Since we are living in a digital age, social media plays a vital role in everyone’s life and as much as it plays a vital role it gives an unrealistic responsibility on the shoulders of companies, government for the protection of their citizens. Terrorism is not something new and so the concept of social media and terrorism shows the adaptability of the terrorist organization with the changing time, therefore, the challenges are not decreased but have increased to a larger extent. The usage of social media by terror organizations to train, recruit, communicate or simply engage and spread propaganda is serving these organizations in their favor, considering the fact that people from around the world interact using social media. Countries like Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and so on have shown homegrown terror organizations which have created instability among the nations, and hence, it shows a deeper level of radicalization which creates destruction. The world cannot run away or ignore the fact that cyber terrorism is present over social media however, steps can be taken to secure the citizens as well as the information which is over the network. As the world is moving towards more and advanced digitalization it is essential for the government to stay alert and so the citizens, people have to be more aware of the kind of information they put up on the internet in order to avoid getting trapped into their provoking ideology and radicalization process. Terrorism has clearly shown the world that what happens due to terror attacks is much enhanced based to induce fear among people in a view to getting their demands or any aspect fulfill. Hence, cyber terrorism will keep on happening until it is totally eradicated from the root though it is a long as well as short term aim, with increased security and keeping a check on the cyber world, cyber-terrorist can be locked up before they even take any action.

Eco-Terrorism and Eco-Activism: A Security Perspective

Author: Neha Ramesh

Although ‘Ecoterrorism’ was coined in the 1980s, history dates to the 18th century when peasants revolted forest reforms in France. The term has since evolved and covered an array of attacks carried out for the protection of the environment. The most famous examples being the Earth Liberation Front and the Unabomber. In the path towards sustainable development, the idea of environmental preservation is given great importance. Regrettably, this was not always the case. The industrial revolution was made possible by fossil fuels and the degradation of the environment. In this piece, I wish to explore the security threat posed by eco-terrorism while outlining the need for eco-activism.
The farmers protest in India was an event of historic proportions that gained traction and support globally from celebrities and environmental activists. The government released a bill that was perceived to be detrimental to farmers. The intricacies of the bill aside, it was met with backlash by farmers of the northern states of India who took to blocking one of the capitals most coveted expressways. The government of India treated the farmers as anti-governmental forces. This is an example of eco-activism being treated as eco-terrorism. The line between the two may be slim but distinct.
Here it is important to note the divided perception of the bill. Both sides deserve merit for their respective arguments. Now let us discuss how environmental activism can be used as a gateway into terrorist elements. Psychologically there is merit to using causes that people are passionate about to drive them into anti-national and anti-governmental entities. There is a president of eco-terrorists being regarded as extremists however it is important to note that the government often uses the excuse of eco-terrorism to suppress eco-activism.
The lack of clarity in policy when defining eco-terrorism or environmental extremism has caused a lot of damage in the form of ill-constructed policy and state response. States are now resonating with the term eco-terrorism to avert potentially dangerous environmental activism, targeting protestors as terrorists with extreme outcomes for the protection of civil liberties. For example, at least a dozen of environmental activists were deported back, or denied entry to Poland, on the occasion of the 2018 United Nations Climate Conference in Katowice, because they were considered a threat to national security.
Some argue that to clearly define terrorism and make it a useful term, we must draw the line at human life. If an act seeks to destroy human life, and, therefore, coerce or intimidate through the threat to human life, it is terrorism. However, if an act destroys property and is careful not to injure or kill, it may be vandalism or arson, but it is not terrorism.
Climate change and the stress it places on environmental resources has been linked to conflicts of various nature. For some, this relationship has smaller effects within country-armed conflicts, as compared to other drivers of conflicts. Others have shown that climate stressors are linked to increased opportunity for violence and conflicts in areas of low living standards and poor governance. However, climate change has now been recognized to fuel greater political instability and conflicts due to resource competition and increasing global insecurity that places the most affected areas at the mercy of insurgencies, organized crime, and terrorism recruitment.
However, environmental activists are being increasingly categorized and targeted as terrorists by well-established democracies. The exacerbated role of these states may fuel a sense of injustice and desperateness capable of compelling radical individuals to join the likes of the Earth Liberation Front or to drive themselves to a new terrorism threat. This could trigger a security risk effect at the heart of advanced regions, where not yet the scarcity of water, but the loss of civil rights would potentiate the rise of a new form of eco-terrorism. Thereafter, the conditions linked to climate change have provided both, an opportunity for environmental terrorism developments in areas of resources scarcity, and a potential platform for a new form of terrorism born from extreme anti-progress ideologies.
At this point let us look at some important lessons we can take away from the mistakes we have made in the past. First, we need to go about establishing a clear understanding of eco-terrorism and differentiate it from environmental activism. Second, we need to protect environmental activists. Finally, we need to embrace sustainable growth and agricultural practices which will help us achieve our growth goals without compromising the environment.


India is not a free country anymore. According to the latest reports by the American NGO (Freedom House), the State of India has downgraded from a free nation to a partially free one. India got a score of 73 out of 100 downgrading it from free to partially free.
This however doesn’t come as a surprise for many. With the path, the country has followed in the past few years, this seemed inevitable. With The rising intolerance and hate crimes, India fails to make everyone feel safe.
But what actually is freedom?
What actually defines a country as a free nation?
Well according to me, a country shall be considered free when every individual living in the same is happy. That doesn’t seem to be the case either for India. According to the World Happiness report published by UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network, India ranks 139 out of 149 Countries in the happiness index. These might just sound like numbers but in reality, these numbers frame a bigger story. The way India is working right now, the National level politics have come out to be religion oriented.  And it is trying its level best to utilize it to its best. Religion being the biggest missile in the hands of ruling parties’ arsenal, they have used it for their betterment by reducing the fraternity among citizens and making a society desperate to soak in the communal blood. The way society has responded to blasphemy is a result of these tactics that teach, “it’s not ok to have different opinions”.
But that’s not all that makes India a not so free nation. The present situation is dangerous, other than religion, other aspects of the democracy are being attacked. The media, also known as the fourth pillar of democracy has collapsed under the constant desire of the government to serve news as per their will. The draconian laws such as UAPA, NSA and the colonial Sedition law have further helped the government to silence the voices which dare to differ.
Fundamental freedoms such as expression, religion etc. has suffered a lot in the last 7 years. The current ruling party has the intention of ruling pan India. In some quite contemporary unfold of events, state governments have put forward laws that have made inter religion marriages difficult. The alleged concept of “Love Jihad” got into popularity after the new government came into power.  The law makes it difficult for the inter religion couples to get married attacking an important pillar of freedom,’ the freedom of Religion.’
The beauty of Federal system lies in its diversity and the deadlocks between the ruling Central and State governments. The deadlock tries to bring the best of both and come to a middle ground which serves the citizens best. However, the attempts by the ruling governments not so new for India, still is not appropriate as it takes out the essence of a federal democracy. This is what the Congress system was. However, the contemporary situation is a bit different, in some recent happenings, the central government has tried to sabotage the Delhi government. The new law intends to reduce the power of the elected legislative Council and give them to a puppet of the center mostly known as the Lieutenant Governor.
Analyzing the overall situation of the country, it seems as if India is losing its image as a free democracy. The heart of democracy lies in the freedom, in the aspect of   its people feeling free and happy. Going forward as a country is difficult, especially for a diverse country like India. Moving forward for the central government it will be necessary to consider the diversity of India as an important aspect and not try sabotaging communal harmony.
The falling global status can be retained if the government tries getting out of religion-based politics and non-democratic methods of governing the country. India losing its status as a free country is a big deal for the entire world. It would be a big blow to democracy if the world’s largest democracy goes into Autocracy. It might just be the right time for us to take a stand for our nation, to take a stand for democracy, to make sure to keep it alive.

Revisiting the French devised Code de l’indigénat and its aftermath


Author:Ritankar Mallick
Is withdrawal of troops an ongoing sudden nationalist in-vogue trend or a hasty measure for the appeasement of the domestic populace? As Western powers prepare to leave their grounds in Asian and African regions, to whom will these outcomes benefit? Quite a few questions hover around as the world begun to slowly fuel its engines, preparing to kickstart in the post-pandemic situation, as the current international events shape the upcoming global timeline.
Previously the occupational therapy that the colonial powers used to provide to their dominion outposts were labelled as “civilizing the uncivilized ” or “making them westernized”   or something almost similar.  With the United States preparing to leave the Afghani ground by September 11 of this year completely1 marking the 20th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, the French President on the other hand, has been vocal about reducing the troops from the Military Operation Barkhane in Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad and Niger.
President Macron has expressed to be committed in the Sahel region but he voiced that a “profound transformation”2  being on its way and the military operations won’t be the same anymore. With this recent move,  let’s trace back to a time in African history to revisit the regime de I’indigenat of French colonization in Africa.
The French pronouncement on Algeria for nearly 135 years led to the code of nativity (Code de l’indigénat) being an integral part of their colonial policy from the beginning. They imposed similar laws in the other parts of Africa as they annexed territories across the continent. The French invasion ceased the Algerian slave trade and piracy but it instead summoned aggression against the resistance towards colonization resulting in bloodshed and inviting more.
The French devised a way where it relied upon its subjects to maintain their colonialism in their lands. The policy was demographically divided into three categories which were called communes. The communes with a significant amount of French people elected their administrative bodies and were the self-governing3 parts of the colons (colonies). The native Muslim communes elected some but had a grand chieftain who was selected to head the elected council. The communes with more uninhabitable or uninhabited places were under the military’s jurisdiction. This began after the implementation of the Royal decree of 1845 in Algeria.
But as a de facto ruler tightens its grip and becomes a colonial power, a small group of natives, those who exercise certain influence over the settlers come in handy for the occupiers. The small group of French-speaking indigenous influential elites formed during this time mainly consisting of the Berbers, mostly Kabyles. Therefore, it resulted in a loving attitude towards the Kabyles. Almost about 80% of the indigenous schools were constructed for the Kabyles. Similarly, the French government favoured them in the local positions and vice versa.
The Code of the Indigénat categorized the citizenship of its population and subjects into two: the French citizens (with metropolitan descent) and French subjects, namely black Africans, Malagasy, Algerians, West Indians, Melanesians, etc. The code of the Senatus Consulte deprived them of most of their freedom and political rights; among the people, they only retain their own religious or customary descent identity.
A method of promotion was laid for the assimilation of the African people or the “civilizing” people. On July 14th, 1865, king Napoleon III in the first clause of the Senatus Consulte of full citizenship allowance4 request made it clear that though a Muslim or a Jew indigenous is French, even after that if he or she wants to enjoy the rights of a French citizen he or she will have to admit it, to be a subject to the French political and civil laws. It established specific penalties for the indigenous and organized lawful dispossession of their lands. But this wasn’t where it ended, as these establishments went through further improvements (1874, 1876, 1877, and 1881) as more offences went on getting specified and enlisted since then. Since the 1860s several changes were made in the upcoming years. The laws on exercising public movement and assembly turned more restrictive for the indigenous people. Punishment for the natives included fines or penalty of a demotion other than the prevailing sequestration.
The attempt towards naturalization that the French government tried to carry out was very depressing. In 1865 the first clause of the Senatus Consulte highlighted the requirement of naturalization that was expected to happen for healthy assimilation to take place. This initiative didn’t turn out well as in a country of millions they received less than 200 naturalization requests from the Muslims and nearly 160 requests from the Jews and other groups. This reaction wasn’t satisfactory at all for the French government back then.
The French administered the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria5 as an integral part and departement of the nation from 1848 till independence. When the French entered, only 1.5 million Algerians lived and when they gained independence it was more than seven times of it.
From 1825 onwards, fifty thousand6 French people moved to Algeria within the next 22 years. The confiscation of communal or tribal lands benefitted these Frenchmen on the Algerian lands as the application of modern agricultural techniques became easier and therefore increased the amount of arable land. Thus, the number of  Europeans settling in7 increased so much that they formed the majority in the cities of Oran and Algiers by the early 20th century. The improvements of the code eventually went on widening the difference between the thought processes invested, separately for the indigenous and the French settlers from Europe. The true harsh identity8 of the code of the nativity was becoming visible as in 1881 some specific offences were codified, which were to be distinguished from the crimes or acts committed in violation of the French law.
Since 1887, different colonial powers started implementing such similar kind of codes in their respective colonies. The implementation of the native Algerian code acted as an inspiration for most of the then contemporary European colonial powers behind the implementation of such similar kind of codes in their colonies. The code made colonialism shine again and enabled the brewing of more injustice and inequality for a several more decades as the 20th century arrived.

UNFCCC and the subsequent climate change conference


UNFCCC and the subsequent climate change conference.
–Anondeeta Chakraborty
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change can very well be described as the first institutional attempt to officially recognize the imminent threat of climate change, as well as one of the earliest attempts to bring the world onto a common platform to fight the menace of climate change.
Environmental issues became very much noticeable from the latter half of the 20th century. The discovery of the ozone hole depletion in 1985, signaled a change in how environmental concerns were perceived. Till then, environmental issues were discerned as some peripheral obstacle. This discovery ultimately led to the signing of the most successful environmental treaty till date, namely the Montreal Protocol of 1987, with the promise to cut back on ozone depleting substances. This success and the impending peril of climate change, led to the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988, by the WMO and the UNEP, to evaluate the magnitude and timing of changes, estimate their impacts, publish strategies for how to respond and to provide an authoritative source of up-to-date interdisciplinary knowledge on climate change. The formation of IPCC, eventually led to the culmination of the UNFCCC.
The UNFCCC was negotiated and signed by 154 countries in 1992 (at present 197), at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, informally known as the “Earth Summit” in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. The apex decision making body of the UNFCCC is known as the Conference of the Parties (COP). This body is responsible for organizing all the subsequent COP conferences.  Till date, there have been around 14 COP sessions and has been meeting biennially since 2001. Following the signing of the UNFCCC agreement the first session of the CoP (1) was held in Berlin in 1995. The important COP climate change conferences and the impact it sought to bring to fight climate change are discussed below thoroughly.
The Conference of Parties 2 (COP 2)1996:, Geneva, Switzerland-  The second report of the IPCC was evaluated at this conference. The economic and social dimension of the issue of climate change was also considered thoroughly. It called for flexibility and “legally binding mid-term targets” by rejecting uniform “harmonized policy” for combating climate change.
The Conference of Parties 3 (COP 3)1997: Kyoto, Japan- One of the most important sessions of the COP.  This conference saw the participation of different NGOs, intergovernmental bodies, along with official representations from 125 states. The delegation after a week of intense negotiation formally accepted the Kyoto Protocol.   In the Kyoto Protocol, Parties in Annex I of the FCCC, committed to reduce their overall emission of six greenhouse gases by around 5% below 1990 levels, between 2008 and 2012.  It  also established emissions trading, joint implementation between developed countries, and a “clean development mechanism” to encourage joint emissions reduction projects between developed and developing countries. But its success has been very much limited as several industrialised countries left the agreement, with Canada withdrawing from it in 2012 and the US never ratified the treaty. In 2020, the Kyoto protocol was amended, known as the Doha Amendment, which established the Kyoto Protocol’s 2013-2020 second commitment period.
The Conference of Parties 6 (COP 6)2000: Hague, Netherlands- The conference at Hague featured a  major controversy over the United States’ proposal to allow credit for carbon “sinks” in forests and agricultural lands that would satisfy a major proportion of the U.S. emissions reductions. This talk failed but was further continued in the next session at Bonn.
  The Conference of Parties 6 (COP 6)2001: Bonn, Germany: As the US rejected the Kyoto protocol, it participated in the conference as an observer. Some major political loopholes in the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in this conference. These include the introduction of The “flexibility mechanisms” including emissions trading, joint implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which allows industrialized countries to fund emissions reduction activities in developing countries as an alternative to domestic emission reductions. A big helping hand was extended to Annex B countries through this process. Carbon sinks credit and compliance procedures and mechanisms were also taken into discussion. Finally, three new funds were introduced for the implementation of the protocol as well as to tackle other environmental menaces arising out of climate change.
The Conference of Parties 7 (COP 7) 2001: Marrakech, Morocco: It set the stage for the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The work on the Buenos Aires Plan of Action was finalized and the completed package of decisions was given official recognition by signing the Marrakech Accords.
The Conference of Parties 10 (COP 10): 2004: Buenos Aires, Argentina: The conference discussed the progress made in fighting climate change since the setup of the COP conferences, a decade ago in Berlin.  To help the developing countries to better fight with the threats posed by climate change, the Buenos Aires Plan of Action was adopted.
The Conference of Parties 11 (COP 11): 2005: Montreal, Canada: This conference is one of the largest intergovernmental conferences on climate change ever.  The Kyoto Protocol finally came into force at this conference.. The Montreal Action Plan was adopted at this conference, with the aim to “extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol beyond its 2012 expiration date and negotiate deeper cuts in greenhouse-gas emissions.
The Conference of Parties 16 (COP 16): 2010: Cancún, Mexico: The outcome of the summit was an agreement adopted by the states’ parties that called for the US$100 billion per annum “Green Climate Fund”, and a” “Climate Technology Centre” and network. It recognized the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report goal of a maximum 2 °C global warming and all parties should take urgent action to meet this goal.
The Conference of Parties 18 (COP 18): 2012, Doha, Qatar: This conference produced a package of documents collectively titled The Doha Climate Gateway. It contained the 2nd Amendment period and the extension of the Kyoto Protocol. This conference also inspected the role of the developing countries like Brazil, India and China as the big emitter of greenhouse gases who are not subjected to emissions reductions under the Kyoto Protocol.
The Conference of Parties 20 (COP 20): 2014, Lima, Peru:  The Common But Differentiated Responsibility, which is one of the founding pillar of the subsequent Paris Treaty of 2015, was for the first time envisaged in this conference.
The Conference of Parties 21 (COP 21): 2015, Paris, France:  One of the most important CoP Conference till date. It resulted in the signing of the Paris Agreement, governing climate change reduction measure. The parties to this conference decided to adopt “concerted efforts” to keep the net average rise in temperature to 1.5 degree Celsius. Taking a departure from the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Treaty embarked on the “Nationally Determined Contribution”, meaning that the country entering the agreement can have the option to voluntary set their emission reduction target. The success of the Paris Agreement has still more or large has been limited.
The Conference of Parties 23 (COP 23): 2017, Bonn, Germany:  The main aim of this conference has been to discuss the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement of 2015, after it enters into force in 2020. COP23 was winded up with the signing of the ‘Fiji Momentum for Implementation,’ which drafted the steps that need to be taken in 2018 to make the Paris Agreement operational. The Talanoa Dialogue was also launched at this conference, which is a process devised to help countries enhance and implement their Nationally Determined Contributions by 2020.
 Evaluation – Its undeniable how the signing of the UNFCCC in 1992, heralded a new epoch in the concerted global effort to fight climate change. While the success of the Montreal Protocol greatly inspired environmentalist all over the world and the same degree of favorable outcome was also envisaged from the UNFCCC and the successive climate change conferences. To our much dismay, the potential of these conferences and the subsequent climate treaties have not been properly utilized. As most of the agreements remain non-binding, the implementation and the success of those are left to the sweet will of respective states. There have been several notions where countries have literally shunned away from their responsibility to fight climate change. Moreover, the many heavy greenhouse emitters like China, Brazil and India, under the guise of being developing countries, have performed minimally when compared to the extent of their role in polluting the environment. Moreover, there are no effective enforcement mechanisms. The lack of finance for the implementation of the climate agreements is yet another stumbling block. The ongoing debate among the states about the implementation of the Green Fund is a burning example.
However, it can be taken as the success of the UNFCCC in amassing such a huge opinion on Climate Change. Each and every country of the world today are looking forward to adopt clean technology, renewable sources of energy, and eyeing for a sustainable and environment friendly lifestyle of the general population. The UNFCCC and the subsequent climate conferences have also helped the developing countries immensely by providing them a platform for finance, technology transfers, discussions, global partnerships, etc. in combating climate change. Thanks to UNFCCC and the COPs, today the world is much better equipped with innovative ideas like the Clean Development mechanism (CDM), the National Adaptations Programme of Action (NAPAs) or the ever budding pioneering technological innovations across all fronts to mitigate the risks from climate change.  It has provided the world with a common platform to discuss, analyze and come up with effective measures to counter the peril that climate change poses…but most importantly, it has provided the human civilization with the hope of survival.

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